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Code Snippet:

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module Helpers = 
let permutations ls =
let rec insertions x = function
| [] -> [[x]]
| (y :: ys) as l -> (x::l)::(List.map (fun x -> y::x) (insertions x ys))
let rec permutations' = function
| [] -> seq [ [] ]
| x :: xs -> Seq.concat (Seq.map (insertions x) (permutations' xs))
ls |> permutations'

module PrisonersHatsPuzzle =
type Hat = Red | Blue
type Prisoner = Hat
type Prisoners = Prisoner * Prisoner * Prisoner * Prisoner
type Guess = Prisoners -> Prisoner * Hat

// Bullet-proof logic for the prisoners to always go free:
//
// As the fourth prisoner is behind a screen, we don't care about him.
// If the last prisoner sees two equal colored hats, he knows he has the
// the opposite and hereby he can call out the color.
// In case the last prisoner doesn't call out his color, the second from
// behind will know that he doesn't have the same color hat as the prisoner
// in front of him, else the last one would have called it, hereby, he
// can safely call out the opposite color of the prisoners hat in
// front of him.
//
let guess : Guess =
fun prisoners ->
let a,b,c,d = prisoners
match a,b,c,d with
| (_,Red,Red,_) -> a,Blue
| (_,Blue,Blue,_) -> a,Red
| (_,_,Blue,_) -> b,Red
| (_,_,Red,_) -> b,Blue

open Helpers
open PrisonersHatsPuzzle

let hats = [Hat.Red; Hat.Blue; Hat.Red; Hat.Blue;]

let alwaysGoFree =
permutations hats
|> Seq.map(fun xs ->
match xs with
| a::b::c::d::[] -> a,b,c,d
| _ -> failwith "never")
|> Seq.map(fun x -> guess x)
|> Seq.toArray

Code output:

module Helpers = begin
val permutations : ls:'a list -> seq<'a list>
end
module PrisonersHatsPuzzle = begin
type Hat =
| Red
| Blue
type Prisoner = Hat
type Prisoners = Prisoner * Prisoner * Prisoner * Prisoner
type Guess = Prisoners -> Prisoner * Hat
val guess : Prisoner * Prisoner * Prisoner * Prisoner -> Prisoner * Hat
end

val hats : Hat list = [Red; Blue; Red; Blue]

val alwaysGoFree : (Prisoner * Hat) [] =
[|(Blue, Blue); (Blue, Blue); (Blue, Blue); (Red, Red); (Red, Red);
(Red, Red); (Blue, Blue); (Red, Red); (Red, Red); (Red, Red); (Blue, Blue);
(Red, Red); (Red, Red); (Red, Red); (Blue, Blue); (Blue, Blue); (Red, Red);
(Red, Red); (Blue, Blue); (Blue, Blue); (Blue, Blue); (Blue, Blue);
(Blue, Blue); (Red, Red)|]

References:

First thing first

Before you can create your own F# logo, you will need a drawing/editing program with support for layers. If you work on a Windows box, you might as well go with Paint.NET - Free Software for Digital Photo Editing, but if you are on a *nix box as myself, you might want to give Pinta: Painting Made Simple a try.

Your logo file should preferable be in a looseless format and with the following measurements: 200 pixels x 200 pixels.

The last step before you can make your own logo is to download both:

from the The F# Software Foundation Logo for F#. You should have the following in a local folder by now:

[ mon@mbai7 logos ] ll
total 20K
-rw-r--r-- 1 mon staff 7.7K Oct 11 21:02 delegate_frm_logo.ora
-rw-r--r-- 1 mon staff 4.0K Oct 11 20:37 delegate_frm_logo.png
-rw-r--r-- 1 mon staff 1.3K Oct 6 14:56 fsharp100mcdark.png
-rw-r--r-- 1 mon staff 1.5K Oct 6 14:56 fsharp100mclight.png
[ mon@mbai7 logos ]

Let’s do it!

The initial logo looks like this: All

Once the file is open in Pinta, we will create a new file with the same dimensions and save it with the OpenRaster format (.ora). This format supports layers, which is indispensable for this kind of work. We will create an empty layer called frm and we will import the fsharp100mclight.png as a layer (Menu |> Layers |> Import from File…)

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We will now choose our logo file and select all and copy it.

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Afterwards, we will paste it into the frm layer. As the frm layer is below the transparent F# logo layer, the F# logo will still be visible (slightly).

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The reason the logo is not blending in well is because I have a black background. In order to make the logo visible, I will change the colors to dark green and light green.

Remark: This is actually not allowed as it will violate the usage guidelines: “Don’t change the colors”. For more info, please contact @ReedCopsey

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And you are done:

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Easy right? Btw I tried out changing a bit the colors in order to comply with the terms of use:

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… I’m not convinced though.

Update: @ReedCopsey sent me the following logo which is pretty much awesome!!!

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I have no clue how he has done it, but at least it doens’t violate the terms of use. The lesson learned here is that the F# Comunity will help you out if you aren’t able to do it yourself which is pretty cool.

It wasn’t that bad, Nykredit only lost 650.000 USD but …

A couple of days ago, a Danish Finance Institution, Nykredit, was in the media due to a stock mistake: Stock mistake costs Nykredit millions. The mistake was that instead of selling 4 A.P. Møller - Mærsk B at 14.000 DKK/stock, the stock broker sold 14.000 shares to the price of 4 DKK/stock.

A bit of simple mathematics will show us how bad that deal was:

  • 14000 x 14000 - 14000 x 4 = 195.944.000 DKK

in looses, more or less 33 million dollars. The finance institution was lucky that the deal was made in the last five minutes before the close of trading, where all deal are secret and the final price is set when trading in closed, which in this case was 13.980 DKK/Stock. Nykredit only lost 3.780.000 DKK, about 650.000 USD, which given the circumstances wasn’t that bad.

You might be thinking: “How the heck can a Finance Institution make such a big mistake, aren’t these guys supposed to be looking after our money?” but then you also might think: “Well these greedy bastards had a lot to do with the financial crisis so …” The main issue here is, why would the stock broker even be allowed to make this kind of mistakes? The answer would be that most business critical solutions are still made with an old fashioned approach.

I will, in very few lines of F# code, show how this kind of mistakes would never be possible by using their Units of Measure to construct a very simple but correct and robust DSL (Domain specific language):

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open System

[<Measure>] type DKK
[<Measure>] type STOCK

let priceMaerskB : int<DKK/STOCK> = 14000<DKK/STOCK>

let buyPrice (stocks:int<STOCK>) = stocks*priceMaerskB
let sellPrice (stocks:int<STOCK>) (price:int<DKK/STOCK>) = stocks*price

buyPrice 4<STOCK>
sellPrice 4<STOCK> 13900<DKK/STOCK>

In the example above, the stock broker needs to explicitly assign to each of the used integers, a corresponding units of measure tag. The result is what we intended it to be, which we also don’t need to make any kind of unit test, as we have ensured that is not possible to represent an illegal statement with our domain:

[<Measure>]
type DKK
[<Measure>]
type STOCK
val priceMaerskB : int<DKK/STOCK> = 14000
val buyPrice : stocks:int<STOCK> -> int<DKK>
val sellPrice : stocks:int<STOCK> -> price:int<DKK/STOCK> -> int<DKK>
val it : int<DKK> = 56000
val it : int<DKK> = 55600

Sadly, there are still to many people, in charge, that live in the past and keep banging their heads against the same walls over and over again instead of taking a ladder and climb over them once and for all … Anyway, if you want to read a few testimonials on how using this kind of approach, please visit:

The funny stuff …

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NuGet Snippet:

C:\_tmp\performanceTest>nuget install -ExcludeVersion canopy
Attempting to resolve dependency 'Selenium.WebDriver (= 2.42.0)'.
Attempting to resolve dependency 'Selenium.Support (= 2.42.0)'.
Attempting to resolve dependency 'SizSelCsZzz (= 0.3.36.0)'.
Attempting to resolve dependency 'Newtonsoft.Json (= 6.0)'.
Installing 'Selenium.WebDriver 2.42.0'.
Successfully installed 'Selenium.WebDriver 2.42.0'.
Installing 'Selenium.Support 2.42.0'.
Successfully installed 'Selenium.Support 2.42.0'.
Installing 'Newtonsoft.Json 6.0.1'.
Successfully installed 'Newtonsoft.Json 6.0.1'.
Installing 'SizSelCsZzz 0.3.36.0'.
Successfully installed 'SizSelCsZzz 0.3.36.0'.
Installing 'canopy 0.9.11'.
Successfully installed 'canopy 0.9.11'.

C:\_tmp\performanceTest>

Script Snippet (DG.StressTest.Browser.cmd):

@echo off

:: Add the paths for the F# SDK 3.x (from higher version to lower)
set FSHARPSDK=^
C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\F#\3.1\Framework\v4.0\;^
C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\F#\3.0\Framework\v4.0\

cls

:: Execute the script "only" with the first "fsianycpu.exe" found
for %%i in (fsianycpu.exe) do "%%~$FSHARPSDK:i" DG.StressTest.Browser.fsx %*

pause

Code Snippet (DG.StressTest.Browser.fsx):

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(* nuget install -ExcludeVersion canopy *)
#r @"Selenium.Support\lib\net40\WebDriver.Support.dll"
#r @"Selenium.WebDriver\lib\net40\WebDriver.dll"
#r @"canopy\lib\canopy.dll"

#load @"DG.Auth.fsx" (* Just contains let usr = "usr" and let pwd = "pwd" *)

open System
open System.IO

open canopy
open runner
open configuration

(* Config canopy *)
compareTimeout <- 30.0

(* Utils *)
let timestamp () = DateTime.Now.ToString("o").Replace(":","")
let timestamp' () = DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss")

let string2float = function
| (n,s) -> match Double.TryParse s with | true, value -> value * n | _ -> 0.

let parse (s:string) =
match s with
| ms when s.Contains("ms") -> 1., ms.Replace(" ms","")
| KB when s.Contains("KB/sec") -> 1., KB.Replace(" KB/sec","")
| MB when s.Contains("MB/sec") -> 1000., MB.Replace(" MB/sec","")
| _ -> failwith "Not recognized unit"
|> string2float |> int

(* Local files / folders *)
let output = @"./output.csv"
let source = @".source/"

(* Connection info: *)
let uriMain = Uri(@"https://org.crm4.dynamics.com");
let uriDiag = Uri(uriMain.AbsoluteUri + @"/tools/diagnostics/diag.aspx")

(* Save to .source folder *)
let save2source data =
File.WriteAllText(source + timestamp() + ".log", data)

(* Browser Performance Test MS CRM Online *)
let rec performanceTestCrm date path =
match (date > DateTime.Now) with
| true ->
click "#runBtn_all"

waitFor (fun () -> (read "#td_status_all") = "complete")

save2source (read "#resultConsole")

let latency, speed, jsArray, jsMorph, jsBase64, jsDOM =
parse (read "#td_result_latency"),
parse (read "#td_result_bandwidth"),
parse (read "#td_result_jsArrayBenchmark"),
parse (read "#td_result_jsMorphBenchmark"),
parse (read "#td_result_jsBase64Benchmark"),
parse (read "#td_result_jsDomBenchmark")

let sw = File.AppendText(path)
sw.WriteLine(
sprintf "%s;%i;%i;%i;%i;%i;%i;"
(timestamp'()) latency speed jsArray jsMorph jsBase64 jsDOM)
sw.Dispose()

reload()

performanceTestCrm date path
| false -> ()

(* Start Browser Response Test: *)
start chrome

"MS CRM Online Browser Performance Test" &&& fun _ ->
(* Clear output.csv and .source folder *)
File.Exists(output) |> function
| true -> File.Delete(output)
| false -> ()
Directory.EnumerateFiles(@".source","*.log",SearchOption.AllDirectories)
|> Seq.iter(fun x -> File.Delete(x))

(* Go to MS CRM Online *)
url uriMain.AbsoluteUri

(* Login *)
"#cred_userid_inputtext" << DG.Auth.usr
"#cred_password_inputtext" << DG.Auth.pwd
click "#cred_sign_in_button"
press enter

(* Go to diag url *)
url uriDiag.AbsoluteUri

(* Start and Stop DateTimes *)
let startDate = DateTime.Now
let stopDate = startDate.AddMinutes(60.)

let sw = File.CreateText(output)
sw.WriteLine(
"Timestamp (ISO 8601);Latency (ms);Speed (KB/sec);" +
"JS Array (ms);JS Morph (ms);JS Base64 (ms);JS DOM (ms);"
)
sw.Dispose()

performanceTestCrm stopDate output

run()

quit()

Code result:

Starting ChromeDriver (v2.10.267521) on port 64015
Only local connections are allowed.
Test: Browser Performance Test MS CRM Online
Passed

60 minutes 19 seconds to execute
1 passed
0 failed
Press any key to continue . . .

Code result (output.csv):

Timestamp (ISO 8601);Latency (ms);Speed (KB/sec);JS Array (ms);JS Morph (ms);JS Base64 (ms);JS DOM (ms);
2014-09-18 22:59:59;47;302;229;33;5;13;
2014-09-18 23:00:03;47;302;197;46;6;17;
2014-09-18 23:00:07;48;322;192;45;4;18;
2014-09-18 23:00:10;48;315;186;36;4;12;
2014-09-18 23:00:14;46;302;186;32;3;13;
2014-09-18 23:00:17;47;322;186;33;3;13;
...
2014-09-18 23:59:59;48;329;194;47;4;17;

Code result (.source\2014-09-18T225959.2540079+0200.log):

=== Latency Test Info ===
Number of times run: 20
Run 1 time: 46 ms
Run 2 time: 51 ms
Run 3 time: 48 ms
Run 4 time: 47 ms
Run 5 time: 48 ms
Run 6 time: 45 ms
Run 7 time: 46 ms
Run 8 time: 46 ms
Run 9 time: 46 ms
Run 10 time: 52 ms
Run 11 time: 50 ms
Run 12 time: 47 ms
Run 13 time: 47 ms
Run 14 time: 45 ms
Run 15 time: 44 ms
Run 16 time: 47 ms
Run 17 time: 48 ms
Run 18 time: 48 ms
Run 19 time: 45 ms
Run 20 time: 50 ms
Average latency: 47 ms
Client Time: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 20:59:57 GMT

=== Bandwidth Test Info ===
Run 1
Time: 56 ms
Blob Size: 15180 bytes
Speed: 264 KB/sec
Run 2
Time: 49 ms
Blob Size: 15180 bytes
Speed: 302 KB/sec
Run 3
Time: 50 ms
Blob Size: 15180 bytes
Speed: 296 KB/sec
Run 4
Time: 49 ms
Blob Size: 15180 bytes
Speed: 302 KB/sec
Run 5
Time: 51 ms
Blob Size: 15180 bytes
Speed: 290 KB/sec
Run 6
Time: 51 ms
Blob Size: 15180 bytes
Speed: 290 KB/sec
Run 7
Time: 52 ms
Blob Size: 15180 bytes
Speed: 285 KB/sec
Run 8
Time: 52 ms
Blob Size: 15180 bytes
Speed: 285 KB/sec
Run 9
Time: 50 ms
Blob Size: 15180 bytes
Speed: 296 KB/sec
Run 10
Time: 53 ms
Blob Size: 15180 bytes
Speed: 279 KB/sec
Max Download speed: 302 KB/sec
Client Time: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 20:59:58 GMT

=== Browser Info ===
Browser CodeName: Mozilla
Browser Name: Netscape
Browser Version: 5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/37.0.2062.120 Safari/537.36
Cookies Enabled: true
Platform: Win32
User-agent header: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/37.0.2062.120 Safari/537.36
Client Time: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 20:59:58 GMT

=== Machine Info ===
Client IP Address: XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX
Client Time: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 20:59:58 GMT

=== Array Manipultaion Benchmark ===
Time: 229 ms
Client Time: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 20:59:58 GMT

=== Morph Benchmark ===
Time: 33 ms
Client Time: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 20:59:58 GMT

=== Base 64 Benchmark ===
Time: 5 ms
Client Time: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 20:59:59 GMT

=== DOM Benchmark ===
Total Time: 13 ms
Breakdown:
Append: 3ms
Prepend: 5ms
Index: 0ms
Insert: 4ms
Remove: 1ms
Client Time: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 20:59:59 GMT

=== Organization Info ===
Organization name: orgSomeIdNumber
Is Live: True
Server time: 9/18/2014 8:59:55 PM UTC
Url: https://org.crm4.dynamics.com//tools/diagnostics/diag.aspx
Client Time: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 20:59:59 GMT

Chart diagrams:

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Architecture (Lenovo ThinkPad W540):

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NuGet Snippet:

C:\_tmp\stressTest>nuget install -ExcludeVersion Microsoft.CrmSdk.CoreAssemblies
Attempting to resolve dependency 'Microsoft.IdentityModel (= 6.1.7600.16394)'.
Installing 'Microsoft.IdentityModel 6.1.7600.16394'.
Successfully installed 'Microsoft.IdentityModel 6.1.7600.16394'.
Installing 'Microsoft.CrmSdk.CoreAssemblies 6.1.0'.
Successfully installed 'Microsoft.CrmSdk.CoreAssemblies 6.1.0'.

C:\_tmp\stressTest>
C:\_tmp\stressTest>nuget install -ExcludeVersion FSharp.Data
Attempting to resolve dependency 'Zlib.Portable (= 1.9.2)'.
Installing 'Zlib.Portable 1.9.2'.
Successfully installed 'Zlib.Portable 1.9.2'.
Installing 'FSharp.Data 2.0.4'.
Successfully installed 'FSharp.Data 2.0.4'.

C:\_tmp\stressTest>

Script Snippet (DG.StressTest.cmd):

@echo off

:: Add the paths for the F# SDK 3.x (from higher version to lower)
set FSHARPSDK=^
C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\F#\3.1\Framework\v4.0\;^
C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\F#\3.0\Framework\v4.0\

cls

:: Execute the script "only" with the first "fsianycpu.exe" found
for %%i in (fsianycpu.exe) do "%%~$FSHARPSDK:i" DG.StressTest.fsx %*

pause

Code Snippet (DG.StressTest.fsx):

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#r @"System.Runtime.Serialization"
#r @"System.ServiceModel"

// nuget install -ExcludeVersion Microsoft.CrmSdk.CoreAssemblies
#r @"Microsoft.CrmSdk.CoreAssemblies\lib\net40\Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.dll"

// nuget install -ExcludeVersion FSharp.Data
#r @"FSharp.Data\lib\net40\FSharp.Data.dll"

#load @"DG.Auth.fsx" // Just contains let usr = "usr" and let pwd = "pwd"

open System
open System.Runtime.Serialization
open System.ServiceModel.Description

open Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk
open Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.Client
open Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.Messages
open Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.Query

open FSharp.Data

/// Utils
let r = new System.Random()

let crmCount (proxy:OrganizationServiceProxy) logicalName (date:DateTime) =
let f = FilterExpression()
f.AddCondition(@"createdon", ConditionOperator.GreaterEqual, date.ToUniversalTime())

let q = QueryExpression(logicalName)
q.ColumnSet <- ColumnSet(logicalName + "id")
q.Criteria <- f
q.PageInfo <- PagingInfo()
q.PageInfo.PageNumber <- 1

seq{ let resp = proxy.RetrieveMultiple(q)
yield! resp.Entities

let rec retrieveMultiple' (ec:EntityCollection) pn = seq{
match ec.MoreRecords with
| true ->
q.PageInfo.PageNumber <- (pn + 1)
q.PageInfo.PagingCookie <- ec.PagingCookie

let resp' = proxy.RetrieveMultiple(q)

yield! resp'.Entities
yield! retrieveMultiple' resp' (pn + 1)
| false -> () }

yield! retrieveMultiple' resp 1 }
|> Seq.length

/// Connection info:
let uri = Uri("https://org.api.crm4.dynamics.com/XRMServices/2011/Organization.svc");

let ac = AuthenticationCredentials()
ac.ClientCredentials.UserName.UserName <- DG.Auth.usr
ac.ClientCredentials.UserName.Password <- DG.Auth.pwd

let m = ServiceConfigurationFactory.CreateManagement<IOrganizationService>(uri)
let tc = m.Authenticate(ac)
let p = new OrganizationServiceProxy(m, tc.SecurityTokenResponse)

/// Test data:
let data = FreebaseData.GetDataContext()

let names = data.Society.People.``Family names`` |> Seq.take 250
let namesCache = names |> Seq.toArray |> Array.map(fun x -> x.Name)

let titles = data.``Products and Services``.Business.``Job titles`` |> Seq.take 250
let titlesCache = titles |> Seq.toArray |> Array.map(fun x -> x.Name)

let products = data.``Products and Services``.``Food & Drink``.Foods |> Seq.take 250
let productsCache = products |> Seq.toArray |> Array.map(fun x -> x.Name)

let countries = data.Commons.Location.Countries |> Seq.take 250
let countriesCache = countries |> Seq.toArray |> Array.map(fun x -> x.Name)

let cities = data.Commons.Location.``City/Town/Villages`` |> Seq.take 250
let citiesCache = cities |> Seq.toArray |> Array.map(fun x -> x.Name)

let companyName name = name + " Company"
let streetName name = name + " Street " + string(r.Next(1,1000))
let phoneNumber () = "555-" + string(r.Next(1000,10000))
let zipCode () = string(r.Next(1000,10000))
let email firstname lastname = (firstname + "." + lastname + "@mail.co.dk").ToLower()

/// Create as many accounts as possible
let createAccount () =
let a = Entity("account")
a.Attributes.Add("name",
namesCache.[r.Next(0,250)] + " " +
namesCache.[r.Next(0,250)] |> companyName)
a.Attributes.Add("telephone1", phoneNumber())
a.Attributes.Add("address1_line1", namesCache.[r.Next(0,250)] |> streetName)
a.Attributes.Add("address1_city", citiesCache.[r.Next(0,250)])
a.Attributes.Add("address1_postalcode", zipCode())
a.Attributes.Add("address1_country", countriesCache.[r.Next(0,250)])
a

// One account per thread
let createAccounts date concurrency =
Array.Parallel.init concurrency (fun _ -> createAccount ())
|> Array.Parallel.map(
fun x ->
try
match (date > DateTime.Now) with
| true ->
let p' = new OrganizationServiceProxy(m, tc.SecurityTokenResponse)
p'.Create(x) |> Some
| false -> None
with ex -> None)

// Ten accounts per thread
let createAccounts' date concurrency =
Array.Parallel.init concurrency
(fun _ ->
let em = new ExecuteMultipleRequest()
em.Settings <- new ExecuteMultipleSettings()
em.Settings.ContinueOnError <- true
em.Settings.ReturnResponses <- true
em.Requests <- new OrganizationRequestCollection()
em)
|> Array.Parallel.map(
fun x ->
try
Array.Parallel.init 10
(fun _ ->
let cr = new CreateRequest()
cr.Target <- createAccount()
x.Requests.Add(cr)) |> ignore
match (date > DateTime.Now) with
| true ->
let p' = new OrganizationServiceProxy(m, tc.SecurityTokenResponse)
p'.Execute(x) :?> ExecuteMultipleResponse |> Some
| false -> None
with ex -> None)

/// Stress Test
let rec stressTestCrm date concurrency =
match (date > DateTime.Now) with
| true ->
createAccounts' date concurrency |> ignore
stressTestCrm date concurrency
| false -> ()

/// Concurrent users (threads)
let concurrency = (1 <<< 10) // 1024

/// Start and Stop DateTimes
let startDate = DateTime.Now
let stopDate = startDate.AddMinutes(60.)

/// Perfom stress test and print outcome
stressTestCrm stopDate concurrency

(crmCount p "account" startDate, startDate.ToString("o"))
||> printfn "Accounts created: %i, since: %s"

Code result:

Accounts created: 141225, since: 2014-09-16T22:31:53.9798783+02:00
Press any key to continue . . .

Architecture (Lenovo ThinkPad W540):

All